In compliance with laid down safety guidelines to contain the massive spread of COVID-19 in the Gambia, teaching and learning activities through the traditional face-to-face instructional mode in Gambian Universities have been disrupted. Subsequently, ICT‑driven remote instruction was adopted by most tertiary institutions. Despite this intervention, technical and internet-related problems have largely hampered the smooth delivery of lectures through the face-to-screen channel. This has dire implications for students' interest and attitude to learning. Therefore, this study examined face-to-face and face-to-screen modes of instruction as predictors of students' interest and attitude toward learning in Gambian Universities. Three research questions were raised and data were collected with ICT using online survey comprising 115 participants. The results showed that face-to-face instruction contributed more to students' interest and attitude toward learning than the face-to-screen mode. The study also found that students prefer the remote channel of instruction to the conventional face-to-face mode. Also, Gambian undergraduates perceived the influence of both face-to-face and face-to-screen instruction on their interest and attitude toward learning as positive. Therefore, it was recommended that the face-to-screen mode of instruction should be retained and progressively used alongside face-to-face instruction in conventional universities in post-COVID 19 Gambia.

Keywords: Face-to-face, remote instruction, interest, attitude, Gambian Universities.


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How to Cite

OLAGBAJU, O. O. ., & AYEDUN, G. S. . (2021). PERCIEVED INFLUENCE OF FACE-TO-FACE AND REMOTE INSTRUCTION ON LEARNING IN GAMBIAN UNIVERSITIES. Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counselling ISSN: 1300-7432, 10(1), 10–20. Retrieved from



Research Article