This study aimed to conduct an in-depth analysis of post-traumatic growth experiences based on the perception of mothers with children with special needs in primary school. As a qualitative research method, the phenomenological design was used because the study focused on how the participants made sense of this growth process. Eight volunteer mothers of children with special needs participated in the study. The data were collected through three-stage semi-structured interviews and analyzed with the phenomenological analysis technique carried out in five stages. The findings of the mothers' post-traumatic growth experiences were collected under five sub-themes with 28 codes, including relationships with other individuals, personal strength, spirituality-religion, appreciation of life, and life opportunities.

Keywords: Posttraumatic growth, individual with special needs, trauma.


Altınsoy, F. (2020). Travmatik deneyimi olan bireyler için bir travma sonrası büyüme modeli [A posttraumatic growth model for individuals with traumatic experiences]. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Turkey.

Altınsoy, F. (2021). Post-traumatic Growth from the Perspectives of Adolescents with Chronic Diseases: A Phenomenological Study. Osmangazi Journal of Educational Research, 8(1), 8-25.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. In American Psychiatric Association (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Association.

Bargiel-Matusiewicz, K. M., Kiełb, K., & Pisula, E. (2019). Posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth in mothers of children with intellectual disability-the role of intrusive and deliberate ruminations. A Preliminary Report. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2011.

Briere, J. N., & Scott, C. (2016). Travma terapisinin ilkeleri belirtiler, değerlendirme ve tedavi için bir kılavuz DSM-5 için güncellenmiş [Principles of trauma therapy: A guide to symptoms, evaluation, and treatment (DSM-5 update)]. (B. D. Genç, Trans.) İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi University Publications.

Byra, S., Żyta, A., & Ćwirynkało, K. (2017). Posttraumatic growth in mothers of children with disabilities. Hrvatska Revija Za Rehabilitacijska İstraživanja, 53(Supplement), 15-27.

Calhoun, L.G., & Tedeschi, R.G. (1998). Beyond recovery from trauma: Implications for clinical practice and research. Journal of Social Issues, 54(2), 357-371.

Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2006). The foundations of posttraumatic growth: an expanded framework. In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research & practice (pp. 3-23). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Can, A. (2018). 4-18 yaş arası farklı gelişim gösteren çocuk anneleri ile normal gelişim gösteren çocuk annelerinin travma sonrası büyüme özelliklerinin bazı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi [Investigations of posttraumatic growth characteristics of differently developing ages 4-18 years child mothers and normally developing child mothers in terms of some variables ] (Unpublished masters’ thesis). İstanbul Ticaret University, İstanbul, Turkey.

Counselman-Carpenter, E. A. (2017). The presence of posttraumatic growth (PTG) in mothers whose children are born unexpectedly with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 42(4), 351-363.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative research methods-Qualitative research and research design according to five approaches. Trans. Ed., M. Tüm and SB Demir). Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi.

Creswell, J. W. (2017). Nitel araştırmacılar için 30 temel beceri [30 basic skills for qualitative researchers], H. Özcan (Trans.). Ankara: Anı Publishing.

Day, M. C. (2013). The role of initial physical activity experiences in promoting posttraumatic growth in Paralympic athletes with an acquired disability. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35(24), 2064-2072.

Ersoy, A. F. (2016). Fenomenoloji. A. Saban & A. Ersoy (Ed.), Eğitimde nitel araştırma desenleri içinde [In qualitative research patterns in education], (pp. 51-109). Ankara: Anı Publishing.

Jayawickreme, E., & Blackie, L. E. (2016). Exploring the psychological benefits of hardship: A critical reassessment of posttraumatic growth. New York, NY: Springer.

Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (2014). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches (4th. ed.). Sage publications.

Konrad, S. C. (2006). Posttraumatic growth in mothers of children with acquired disabilities. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 11(1), 101-113.

Levine, P. A., & Frederick, A. (2013). Kaplanı uyandırmak. (Z. Yalçınkaya, Trans). İstanbul: Butik Publishing.

Li, Y., Bai, H., Lou, F., & Cao, F. (2019). A conceptual model of posttraumatic growth of nursing students with a disabled parent. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 6(4), 406-413.

Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2004). Positive change following trauma and adversity: A review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(1), 11-21. doi:10.1023/B:JOTS.0000014671.27856.7e

Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Sage publications.

Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, (2020). 2019-2020 Millî eğitim istatistikleri örgün eğitim [2019-2020 National education statistics formal education],

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Shariati, Z., Naeimi, E., & Kalantar Hormozi, A. (2019). The study of spiritual components in disabled people with experience of posttraumatic growth. Biannual Journal of Applied Counseling, 9(1), 1-24.

Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1995). Trauma and transformation: Growing in the aftermath of suffering. London: Sage.

Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measu-ring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 455-471.

Tedeschi, R. G., Park, C. L., & Calhoun, L. G. (1998). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual issues. In R. G. Tedeschi, C. L. Park, & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.), The LEA series in personality and clinical psychology. Posttraumatic growth: Positive changes in the aftermath of crisis (pp. 1–22). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Tedeschi, R. G., Cann, A., Taku, K., Senol-Durak, E., & Calhoun, L. G. (2017). The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: A Revision Integrating Existential and Spiritual Change. J Trauma Stress, 30(1), 11-18.  

Tedeschi, R. G., & Moore, B. A. (2016). The posttraumatic growth workbook: Coming through trauma wiser, stronger, and more resilient. New Harbinger Publications.

Werdel, M. B., & Wicks, R. J. (2012). Primer on posttraumatic growth: An introduction and guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2016). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods in the social sciences]. Ankara: Seçkin Publishing.

Young, S., Shakespeare-Finch, J., & Obst, P. (2020). Raising a child with a disability: a one-year qualitative investigation of parent distress and personal growth. Disability & Society, 35(4), 629-653.

Zhang, W., Yan, T. T., Barriball, K. L., While, A. E., & Liu, X. H. (2015). Post-traumatic growth in mothers of children with autism: A phenomenological study. Autism, 19(1), 29-37.




How to Cite

ALTINSOY, F. ., & ERKORKMAZ-ÇOBAN, Ümran . (2021). POSTTRAUMATIC GROWTH FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MOTHERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS CHILDREN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY. Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counselling ISSN: 1300-7432, 10(2), 101–113. Retrieved from



Research Article