AN IMPORTANT ANTECEDENT OF CLASSROOM ENGAGEMENT: SCHOOL BELONGING
The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between high school students’ school belonging and classroom engagement. Dependent variable of the study is school belonging and independent variable of the study is behavioral, cognitive and emotional engagement. The study was conducted in cross sectional research design. In the study quantitative method was used. Purposive sampling method was utilized in the study. 236 high school students who received education at 9th and 10th grades, were between 15-17 years old were included in the study. Data were collected via School Belonging Scale and Classroom Engagement Scale. In the analysis of the data, simple regression analysis technique was applied in the study. According to the results of the study, as long as school belonging feeling increases, behavioral, emotional and cognitive engagement of the students in the classroom increases. At this point, school psychologists, psychological counselors, teachers and school managers can produce preventive and constructive intervention programs that will increase students’ school belonging feelings in school context.
Keywords: School belonging, engagement, high school, classroom engagement.
Abdollahi, A., Panahipour, S., Akhavan Tafti, M., & Allen, K. A. (2020). Academic hardiness as a mediator for the relationship between school belonging and academic stress. Psychology in the Schools, 57(5), 823-832.
Allen, K. A., Kern, M. L., Rozek, C. S., McInerney, D. M., & Slavich, G. M. (2021). Belonging: a review of conceptual issues, an integrative framework, and directions for future research. Australian Journal of Psychology, 1-16. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00049530.2021.1883409
Altınsoy, F., & Özyer, K. K. (2018). Liseli ergenlerde okula aidiyet duygusu: Umutsuzluk ve yalnızlık ile ilişkileri [School belonging sense for high school adolescence: The relationship with hopelessness and lonelines]. Elementary Education Online, 17(3), 1751-1764 .
Altınsoy, F., & Eryılmaz, A. (2017). School belonging in adolescence: Relationships with life goals and attachment patterns. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 9(4), 1038-1051.
Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369-386. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20303
Arastaman, G. (2006). Ankara ili lise birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin okula bağlılık durumlarına ilişkin öğrenci, öğretmen ve yöneticilerin görüşleri [The opinions of students, teachers and administrators in Ankara province in relation to freshman high school students]. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Ankara University, Ankara.
Archambault, I., Vandenbossche-Makombo, J., & Fraser, S. L. (2017). Students’ oppositional behaviors and engagement in school: The differential role of the student-teacher relationship. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(6), 1702-1712.
Arslan, G. (2021). School bullying and youth ınternalizing and externalizing behaviors: Do school belonging and school achievement matter?. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-18. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-021-00526-x
Ashford, M. W. (1997). Preventing school violence by building connectedness: A local initiative, 45-53, ERIC Number: ED438145 https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED438145
Başal, A., & Eryılmaz, A. (2021) Engagement and affection of pre-service teachers in online learning in the context of COVID 19: engagement-based instruction with web 2.0 technologies vs direct transmission instruction, Journal of Education for Teaching, 47(1), 131-133, DOI: 10.1080/02607476.2020.1841555
Booker, C. K. (2004). Exploring school belonging and academic achievement in African American adolescent. Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 6(2), 131-143.
Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, E. K., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2014). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods]. Ankara: Pegem Academy Publishing.
Caraway, K., Tucker, C. M., Reinke, W. M., & Hall, C. (2003). Self‐efficacy, goal orientation, and fear of failure as predictors of school engagement in high school students. Psychology in the Schools, 40(4), 417-427. Doi: https://doi:10.1002/pits.10092
Cemalcılar, Z. (2010). Schools as socialisation contexts: Understanding the impact of school climate factors on student’s sense of school belonging. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 59(2), 243-272. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00389.x
Chase, P. A., Hilliard, L. J., John Geldhof, G., Warren, D. J. A., & Lerner, R. M. (2014). Academic achievement in the high school years: The changing role of school engagement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(6), 884-896. Doi: https://doi:10.1007/s10964-013-0085-4
Eryılmaz, A. (2014). Üniversite öğrencileri için derse katılım ölçeklerinin geliştirilmesi [The development of the scales of classroom engagement for university students]. Usak University Journal of Social Sciences, 7(2), 203-214.
Eryılmaz, A., & Aypay, A. (2011). Lise öğrencilerinde derse katılmaya motive olma ile yaşam amaçları belirleme arasındaki ilişkiler [Relationships between Motivation to Class Engagement and Determining Life Goals in High School Students]. Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty, 12(3), 149-158.
Eryılmaz, A., & Altınsoy, F.(2016). Relationships between motivation to study lesson and classroom engagement. International Journal of Educational Researchers, 7(2), 56-68.
Fatou, N., & Kubiszewski, V. (2018). Are perceived school climate dimensions predictive of students’ engagement?. Social Psychology of Education, 21(2), 427-446.
Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59(2), 117-142.
Finn, J.D. (1993). Student engagement and student at risk. Washington,DC: National Center For Education Statistics.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Reviev of Educational Research, 74(1), 59-109. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059
Froiland, J. M., & Oros, E. (2014). Intrinsic motivation, perceived competence and classroom engagement as longitudinal predictors of adolescent reading achievement. Educational Psychology, 34(2), 119-132.
Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 148-162. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.199
Goodenow, C. (1992). Strengthening the links between educational psychology and the study of social contexts. Educational Psychologist, 27, 177-196.
Goodenow, C. (1993).The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 79-90.
Goodenow, C., & Grady, K. E. (1993). The relationship of school belonging and friends' values to academic motivation among urban adolescent students. The Journal of Experimental Education, 62(1), 60-71.
Hagerty, B. M., Lynch-Sauer, J., Patusky, K. L., Bouwsema, M., & Collier, P. (1992). Sense of belonging: A vital mental health concept. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 6(3), 172-177.
Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (2000). Kültürel psikoloji kültür bağlamında insan ve aile [Cultural psychology, human and family in the context of culture.]. İstanbul: Evrim Publications.
Kiefer, S. M., Alley, K. M., & Ellerbrock, C. R. (2015). Teacher and peer support for young adolescents’ motivation, engagement, and school belonging. Rmle Online, 38(8), 1-18.
Kostelecky, K. L. (2005). Parental attachment, academic achievement, life events and their relationship to alcohol and drug use during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 28(5), 665-669. Doi:https://doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.12.006
Lancaster, J. R., & Lundberg, C. A. (2019). The influence of classroom engagement on community college student learning: A quantitative analysis of effective faculty practices. Community College Review, 47(2), 136-158.
Li, L., Chen, X., & Li, H. (2020). Bullying victimization, school belonging, academic engagement and achievement in adolescents in rural China: A serial mediation model. Children and Youth Services Review, 113, 1-8. 104946. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.104946
Maddox, S. J., & Prinz, R. J. (2003). School bonding in children and adolescents: Conceptualization, assessment, and associated variables. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6(1), 31-49.
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Cultural variation in the self-concept. In the self: Interdisciplinary approaches (pp. 18-48). New York: Springer New York.
Moreira, P. A., Dias, A., Matias, C., Castro, J., Gaspar, T., & Oliveira, J. (2018). School effects on students' engagement with school: Academic performance moderates the effect of school support for learning on students' engagement. Learning and Individual Differences, 67, 67-77.
Neel, C. G. O., & Fuligni, A. (2013). A longitudinal study of school belonging and academic motivation across high school. Child Development, 84(2), 678-692. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01862.x
Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students' need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research, 70(3), 323-367. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214111717?accountid=16716
Olivier, E., Archambault, I., De Clercq, M., & Galand, B. (2019). Student self-efficacy, classroom engagement, and academic achievement: Comparing three theoretical frameworks. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(2), 326-340.
Quin, D., Hemphill, S. A., & Heerde, J. A. (2017). Associations between teaching quality and secondary students’ behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement in school. Social Psychology of Education, 20(4), 807-829.
Renick, J., & M Reich, S. (2021). Best friends, bad food, and bullying: How students’ school perceptions relate to sense of school belonging. Journal of Community Psychology, 49(2), 447-467.
Reeve, J., & Lee, W. (2014). Students’ classroom engagement produces longitudinal changes in classroom motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(2), 527–540. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034934
Saraví, G. A., Bayón, M. C., & Azaola, M. C. (2020). Constructing school belonging (s) in disadvantaged urban spaces: Adolescents’ experiences and narratives in Mexico City. Youth & Society, 52(7), 1107-1127.
Sarı, M. (2013). Lise öğrencilerinde okula aidiyet duygusu [Sense of school belonging among high school students]. Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, 13(1), 147-160.
Sarı, M. (2015). Adaptation of the psychological sense of school membership scale to Turkish. Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research, 15(7),58-64.
Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press.
Skinner, E., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational dynamic?.Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 765–781. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012840
Steinberg, L. (2013). Ergenlik. (Çev. F. Çok, H. Ercan, M. Artar, E. Uçar, S. A. Sevim, M. Bağlı, A. Aypay, T.Şener, R. Parmaksız, C. Satman, T. Yiğit, and E. G. Kapçı), Ankara: İmge Kitabevi.
Thomson, S. (2005). Engaging students with school life. Youth Studies Australia, 24(1), 10-16.
Veenhoven, R., & Hagerty, M. (2006) Rising happiness in nations, 1946-2004: A reply to Easterlin. Social Indicators Research, 79(3), 421-436.
Voelkl, K. E. (1997). Identification with school. American Journal of Education, 105(3), 294-318.
Veenhoven, R. (2000). The four qualities of life: ordering concepts and measures of the good life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, 1-39.
Wang, Z, Bergin, C., & Bergin, D. A. (2014). Measuring engagement in fourth to twelfth grade classrooms: The classroom engagement inventory. School Psychology Quarterly, 29(4), 517-535. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000050