action research, naturalistic observation, qualitative


Naturalistic Observation and Action Research share common qualitative rudiments. This is not inflammatory nor controversial as each means of inquiry requires careful planning, application, and review to realize worthwhile personal and professional outcomes. Both research modes are largely subjective non-experimental efforts that complement other types of research and supply perspective and next steps that generate theory while verifying data. Differences are overt and so are similarities that need be illuminated to support both research and researchers who may need to disentangle each. To aid in this exercise of clarity, exemplars are included that illustrate possibilities within tertiary contexts.

Keywords: Action research, naturalistic observation, qualitative.


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How to Cite

RYAN, T. G. . (2022). NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION WITHIN ACTION RESEARCH: PLAUSIBILITY. Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counselling ISSN: 1300-7432, 11(1), 69–81. Retrieved from



Research Article