This study examines child abuse, class of study and gender as predictors of aggressive behavior among in-school adolescents in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted across-sectional survey design while a simple random sampling technique was used to select five secondary schools in the study area. Validated questionnaires were used to gather data from 195 in-school adolescents. Data collected were analyzed using multiple regression, t-test of independent samples and one-way analysis of variance. Three hypotheses were tested and accepted at a p < .05 level of significance. The result revealed that dimensions of child abuse jointly predicted aggressive behavior among in-school adolescents. Also, the result indicated that class of study significantly influences aggressive behavior. However, gender marginally influences aggressive behavior among study participants. The study concluded that child abuse and class of study are significant contributors to aggressive behavior. It is recommended that parents, teachers and other stakeholders should help to reduce incidence and prevalence of child abuse in order to reduce aggressive behavior.

Keywords: Aggressive behavior, child abuse, class of study, gender, in-school adolescents.


Abdulmalik, J., Ani, C., & Ajuwon, A. J. (2016). Effects of problem-solving interventions on aggressive behaviors among primary school pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria. Child Adolescents Psychiatry Mental Health, 10(31),

Afifi, T. O., Mota, N., Sareen, J., & MacMillan, H. L. (2017). The relationships between harsh physical punishment and child maltreatment in childhood and intimate partner violence in adulthood. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 1-10. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4359-8 

Allen, B. (2017). Children with sexual behavior problems: Clinical characteristics and relationship to child maltreatment. Child Psychiatry Human Development, 48(2), 189-199. doi:10.1007/s10578-016-0633-8.PMID:26923833.  

Archer, J., & Coyne, S. M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9(3), 212-230.

Auslander, W., McGinnis, H., Tlapek, S., Smith, P., Foster, A., Edmond, T., & Dunn, J. (2017). Adaptation and implementation of a trauma-focusd cognitive behavioral intervention for girls in child welfare. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 87, 206-215.  

Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.). Handbook of Personality (2nd ed., 154-196). Guilford Publications.

Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106(1), 59-73.

Berzenski, S. R., & Yates, T. M. (2010).A developmental process analysis of the impact of emotional abuse on relationship violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 19(2), 180-203.

Brendgen, M., Dionne, G., Girard, A., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F., & Pe'russe, D. (2005).Examining genetic and environmental effects on social aggression: A study of 6-year-old twins.  Child Development, 76, 930-946.

Breuer, J., & Elson, M. (2017). Frustration-aggression theory. In P. Sturmey (Ed.). The Wiley Handbook of Violence and Aggression (pp. 1-12). Chichester: Wiley Blackwell

Buss A. H., & Perry, M. (1992).The aggression questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.63.3.452

Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development, 79, 1185-1229.

Choudhary, Y., Kumar, M., Mahore, R., Lanke, G. W., & Dubey, M. (2022). Aggression, self-esteem, and resilience among children: A school-based cross-sectional study from central India. Asian Journal of Social & Health Behavior, 5,115-21

Dodge, K. A.. & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children's peer groups. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 53(6), 1146-1158.

Dollard, J., Miller, N. E., Doob, L. W., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and    aggression. Yale University Press. doi:10.1037/10022-000.OCLC 256003.   

Elmasry, N. M., Fouad, A. A., Khalil, D. M., & Sherra, K. S. (2016).Physical and verbal aggression among adolescent school students in Sharkia, Egypt: Prevalence and risk factors. Egyptian Journal Psychiatry, 37, 166-173.

Faris, N. H., Ishak, N. A., & Ahmad Ramli, F. Z. (2016). Validity and reliability of the aggression questionnaire instrument to high school students. Journal of Humanities and Social Science21(12), 27-32.

Giles, J. W., & Heyman, G. D. (2005).Young children's beliefs about the relationship between gender and aggressive behavior. Child Development, 76(1), 107-121.  

Jenkins, L. N., Demaray, M. K., & Tennant, J. (2017). Social, emotional, and cognitive factors associated with bullying. School Psychological Review, 46, 42-64. doi:10.1080/02796015.2017.12087609

Maremmani I., Avella M. T., Novi M., Bacciardi S., & Maremmani A. G. I. (2020): Aggressive behavior and substance use disorder: The heroin use disorder as a case study. Addiction, Disorder & Treatment, 19(3), 161-173. Doi:10.1097/ADT.0000000000000199

Meghan. E. F., & Scott, J. R. (2019). Recent advances in the study of aggression. Neuropsychopharmacology 44, 241-244.

Nnodum, B. I., Agbaenyi, I. G., & Ugwuegbulam, C. N. (2014). Efficacy of positive reinforcement and self control in the management of aggressive behavior among pupils. The Counsellor, 33(2),163-174.

Obradovic-Tomasevic, B., Santric-Milicevic, M., Vasic, V., Vukovic, D., Sipetic-Grujicic, S., Bjegovic-Mikanovic, V., Terzic-Supic, Z., Tomasevic, R. Todorovic, J., & Babic, U. (2019). Prevalence and predictors of violence victimization and violent behavior among youths: A population-based study in Serbia. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 16, 3203.

Oostendorp, H. (2003). Cognition in a digital world. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Ostrov, J. M., & Keating, C. F. (2004). Gender differences in preschool aggression during free play and structured interactions: An observational study. Social Development, 13, 255-277.

Park, S., Chiu, W., & Won, D. (2017). Effects of physical education, extracurricular sports activities, and leisure satisfaction on adolescent aggressive behavior: A latent growth modeling approach. Plos one12(4), e0174674.

Verma, R., Kumar, G., Yadav, R. K., Chayal, V., Kalhan, M., Bhalla, K., ... & Sagar, V. (2021). Association of psychosocial factors with aggression among school going rural adolescents in Haryana. Journal of family medicine and primary care10(10), 3720-3724.

Rub, M. A. (2018). An assessment of bullying/victimization behaviors among third-graders in Jordanian public schools. International Journal of Research in Education, 42, 337-367.

Taylor, C. A, Manganello, J. A, Lee, S. J, & Rice, J. C. (2010).Mothers' spanking of 3-year old children and subsequent risk of children's aggressive behavior. Pediatrics, 125(5), e1057-65.

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), (2022).The state of the world's children: Adolescence an age of opportunity. New York, NY: UNICEF.

Verma , L., Gary, V. K., & Meena, S. K. (2021). Analysis of medico-legal deaths in adolescence: An autopsy based study at coaching city, Kota. JIAFM, 43(2), 126-129.

Wang, X, Fengjiao, D., Chang, C, Jiayue, H., Xiang, W., & Shuqiao, Y. (2022). Psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the childhood trauma questionnaire (Short Form) across genders, time points and presence of major depressive disorder among Chinese adolescents. Psychology for Clinical Setings, 13, -

Wendy, A. P., Sterzing, J. T, Donald, G., & Tonya, E. (2017). Childhood abuse and aggression in adolescent girls involved in child welfare. Journal of Child Adolescents Trauma, 9, 1-10. doi:10.1007/s40653-016-0090-3  

Author Biographies

Omowonuola RAJI, Department of psychology, university of Ibadan, Nigeria

  1. Department of Psychology 

Esohe EHONDOR, Department of psychology, university of Ibadan, Nigeria

Department of Psychology 




How to Cite

UYE, E., RAJI, O., & EHONDOR, E. . (2024). CHILD ABUSE AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS PREDICTING AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR AMONG IN-SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS. Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counselling ISSN: 1300-7432, 13(1), 69–78. Retrieved from



Research Article